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        #101: The Civil War at Sea

        作者:Frank Beardsley and Christine Johnson 發布日期:5-23-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

        The American Civil War in the eighteen sixties was fought not only on land. There was a great deal of fighting between the Union and Confederate navies.

        19世紀60年代美國南北戰爭的戰場不僅局限于陸地,雙方海軍也多次交戰。

        This part of the war -- the sea war -- is often forgotten, but it was important. The Union victory might not have been possible without the successes of its navy.

        南北戰爭的海上戰役雖然常被遺忘,但其重要性不可忽視。沒有海軍的貢獻,北方聯邦恐怕很難取得最終勝利。

        Many battles took place just off the coast of the United States. Many others took place farther away, in international waters.

        This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe talk about the naval side of the Civil War.

        VOICE ONE:

        Painting of the battle between the Alabama, left, and the Kearsarge
        Painting of the battle between the Alabama, left, and the Kearsarge

        As soon as the war started, President Abraham Lincoln wanted to block the South's major ports. He wanted to prevent the South from shipping its agricultural products to other countries in exchange for industrial goods.

        戰爭一開始,林肯總統就下令,設法封鎖南方主要港口,不讓南方把農產品運出去,跟其它國家交換工業產品。

        Lincoln's plan was good. But it had one major weakness. The Union navy was too small for the job.

        林肯的計劃雖好,但存在嚴重缺陷,那就是,北方聯邦的海軍實力不夠強大,無法完成這項任務。

        The Confederate seacoast was long. It extended from Chesapeake Bay to Mexico, a distance of five thousand six hundred kilometers. There were not enough ships in the Union navy to blockade all of it. Many months would pass before the Union could build up an effective naval force.

        南方邦聯海岸線綿長,從切薩皮克灣一直延伸到墨西哥,全長約五千六百公里。北方聯邦的海軍想全線封鎖,卻沒有足夠戰艦。北方花了很長時間,才最終籌建起一支強有力的海軍。

        VOICE TWO:

        The Confederacy had no navy at the start of the Civil War. The Confederate government had little money to create one. And the South had no factories to build one.

        南北戰爭之初,南方沒有海軍,邦聯政府也沒有必要的資金和軍工廠。

        For a while, the Confederacy was able to get warships from Britain. Then the Union put diplomatic pressure on Britain to stop this support. For the most part, the Confederacy depended on privately owned ships to get goods in and out of the South.

        英國一度曾向南方提供戰艦,但后來迫于北方的外交壓力,不得不停止對南方的支持。因此,南方邦聯的水陸運輸,主要依靠私人船只。

        About twenty of these private ships flew the Confederate flag. Most were very successful in the beginning.

        南方邦聯旗下的私人船只大約有二十艘,戰爭初期捷報頻傳。

        The Florida, for example, captured more than thirty ships before being captured itself off the coast of Brazil in eighteen sixty-four. The Alabama captured more than sixty ships. It was finally sunk in a battle with the Kearsarge off the coast of France.

        比如說,佛羅里達號先后捕獲了三十多條船,1864年才在巴西沿岸成為北方的手下敗將。再比如,阿拉巴馬號先后捕獲了六十多條船只,最后在法國沿岸被凱爾薩奇號擊沉。

        The Shenandoah sailed in the Pacific Ocean. It captured forty ships. After the war ended, the Shenandoah tied up in Liverpool, England.

        雪蘭多號在太平洋橫沖直撞,捕獲過四十條船。南北戰爭結束后,??吭谟睦锲?。

        VOICE ONE:

        A drawing of the Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley
        A drawing of the Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley

        In addition to these victories, the Confederacy claimed responsibility for several new naval technologies during the Civil War. One was the first modern submarine.

        除了這些勝仗外,南軍在南北戰爭期間還推出了若干項海戰的技術創新,其中包括第一艘現代潛水艇。

        This ship was ten meters long. It sank four times while being tested. It was raised each time and put back into service. One night, it fired its torpedoes at a much larger Union ship and sank it. But the explosion was so great that it tore apart the submarine. And it sank, too.

        這艘潛水艇長十米,試驗階段四次沉沒,每次都被打撈起來,重新使用。一天晚上,潛水艇發射水雷,擊沉了北軍一艘比它大得多的船只,但爆炸力度太大,潛水艇自己也在劫難逃,一起沉入海底。

        The Confederacy also developed very effective underwater explosive devices for use in the harbors.

        除潛水艇外,南方還發明了有效的海底爆炸裝置,專用于港口。

        VOICE TWO:

        Even with its victories and technologies, however, the Confederacy could not stop the Union navy. The Union navy was bigger to begin with and grew much faster.

        雖然南方打了不少勝仗,也發明了不少新技術,但還是無法阻止來勢兇猛的北方海軍。北方海軍本來就比南方實力雄厚,而且迅速壯大。

        David Farragut
        David Farragut

        During the first two years of the Civil War, the Union captured several southern ports: Fort Hatteras and Roanoke Island, North Carolina. Port Royal, South Carolina. Pensacola, Florida. And -- perhaps most importantly -- New Orleans, Louisiana.

        南北戰爭頭兩年,北軍占領了好幾個南方港口,包括北卡羅來納的哈特拉斯和羅阿諾克島,南卡羅來納的皇家港,佛羅里達的彭薩科拉,以及可能是最為重要的路易斯安那的新奧爾良。

        New Orleans lay near the mouth of the Mississippi River. It was the largest city in the south. It was the largest seaport. It had become a busy industrial center, producing war equipment for Confederate forces. If the Union could capture New Orleans, it would control the Mississippi River.

        新奧爾良位于密西西比河口附近,是南方最大的城市,也是最大的海港,逐漸發展成為一個繁忙的工業中心,為南軍生產戰備物資。北軍占領新奧爾良,就能控制密西西比河。

        President Lincoln appointed navy officer David Farragut to lead the attack on New Orleans.

        林肯任命海軍將領大衛·法拉格率兵攻打新奧爾良。

        VOICE ONE:

        To reach the city, Farragut had to sail his ships past two Confederate forts on the Mississippi River. He shelled the forts for six days and nights. But the forts were so strong that the shells caused little damage. He decided not to wait any longer.

        要進軍新奧爾良,必需首先突破密西西比河沿岸的另外兩個南軍城堡。法拉格對這兩個城堡進行了六天六夜的轟炸,但是城堡異常堅固,居然沒有受到重大破壞。法拉格決定采取果斷行動。

        Battle of New Orleans
        Battle of New Orleans

        One dark night, Farragut led seventeen Union warships up the river in a line. The Confederate forces heard them and began to fire. One ship was sunk. Three others were damaged so badly that they could not continue. But thirteen made it safely past the forts.

        法拉格選擇一個漆黑的夜晚,率領十七艘戰艦一字排開,準備闖關。南軍聽到了動靜,向他們開炮,擊沉了一艘戰艦,另外三艘也受到重創,無法繼續前進,但是其余十三艘則安全沖破封鎖。

        When Farragut reached New Orleans, he found the city defenseless. Several thousand Confederate soldiers had fled. They knew they could not defend against the bigger Union force. Only civilians remained. Farragut captured New Orleans without a fight. The Confederate flag was lowered. And the United States flag was raised over the city.

        抵達新奧爾良的時候,法拉格才發現,新奧爾良毫無抵御能力,原來駐扎在那里的幾千名南軍士兵知道自己抵擋不住北軍的攻擊,早已逃之夭夭,剩下的都是普通百姓。法拉格就這樣不費一槍一彈占領了新奧爾良,南軍旗幟也換成了聯邦旗幟。

        VOICE TWO:

        Several weeks before Farragut captured New Orleans, a new kind of navy battle was fought off Hampton Roads, Virginia. It was the first battle between iron ships.

        新奧爾良被占領的幾個星期前,維吉尼亞漢普頓路沿海一帶發生了一場新型海戰,是第一次裝甲戰艦之間的戰役。

        On the Confederate side was the Virginia. It had been built from what remained of a captured Union warship called the Merrimack. The Virginia was like no other warship ever seen in the world.

        南軍的戰艦是維吉尼亞號。維吉尼亞號由被俘的北軍戰艦莫瑞麥克號改造而成,跟以前的任何戰艦都不一樣。

        It was eighty meters long. The part that showed above the water line was built of wood sixty centimeters thick. This part was covered with sheets of iron ten centimeters thick.

        維吉尼亞號長八十米,露出水面的部分由六十厘米厚的木材制成,外面包著一層十厘米厚的鐵板。

        Ten windows were cut into it. Behind each window was a cannon. In a battle, the windows would open, the cannons would fire, and the windows would close again. At the front was a sharp point of iron that could smash through the sides of wooden ships.

        船身兩側一共有十個窗口,每個窗口后面都設有一門火炮。打仗的時候,窗戶打開開炮,然后立刻關上。維吉尼亞號的船頭是鐵制的尖頭,可以穿透任何木船的船身。

        The Virginia could not move fast. And it was difficult to control. It took almost thirty minutes to turn around. Still, there seemed to be no way to stop this iron monster. It already had destroyed two Union warships. And it was coming back for more.

        維吉尼亞號行駛速度很慢,而且很難操縱,掉頭幾乎需要半個小時。盡管如此,這艘包著鐵皮的怪物還是所向披靡,已經摧毀了兩艘北軍戰艦,如今再次披掛上陣。

        VOICE ONE:

        One of the guns of the ironclad Monitor
        One of the guns of the ironclad Monitor

        The Union ship chosen to fight the Virginia was the Monitor. It, too, was covered with iron. But it was much smaller than the Virginia. And it carried only two cannons.

        北軍迎戰維吉尼亞號的是莫尼特號。莫尼特號也是裝甲艦,但船身比維吉尼亞號小得多,而且艦上只有兩門火炮。

        These two cannons, however, were on a part of the ship that could turn in a complete circle. They could be aimed in any direction.

        不過,這兩門火炮機動性好,可以迅速轉動,向任何方向開火。

        The Monitor and the Virginia faced each other on the morning of March ninth, eighteen sixty-two. They moved in close -- very close -- then began to fire.

        1862年3月9號,維吉尼亞號和莫尼特號正面交鋒,近距離開火。

        A Confederate cannon ball hit the iron side of the Monitor and bounced away. Union sailors cheered. The cannons of the Virginia could do no damage! But the Union sailors soon discovered that their cannons could do no damage, either.

        南軍炮彈擊中了莫尼特號的船身,彈了回去,北軍水兵歡呼雀躍,因為維吉尼亞號的火炮對他們造不成任何傷害。但是沒過多久他們又沮喪地發現,他們的火炮同樣無法穿透維吉尼亞號。

        VOICE TWO:

        The men inside the two ships suffered from noise, heat, and smoke. The roar of their own cannons was extremely loud. Even louder was the crash of enemy cannon balls and explosive shells on the iron walls.

        兩艘戰艦里的水兵被噪聲、熱氣和煙霧害得不輕。他們發射的火炮聲音巨大,敵軍火炮爆炸聲更是震耳欲聾。

        Some of the men suffered burst eardrums. At least one man was struck unconscious from the force of a cannon ball against the iron. The men quickly learned to stay away from the walls.

        有些人耳膜被震破,至少有一個人被擊中船身爆炸的炮彈震得不省人事,大家這才知道,不能站在船艙的墻壁旁邊。

        Smoke from the cannons filled the ships. Then it floated out over the water. At times, the two ships could not see each other.

        火炮爆炸的煙霧不僅彌漫了艦只,而且還漂浮在水面上。有時候,兩艘船甚至彼此看不見對方。

        VOICE ONE:

        The Battle of Hampton Roads between the Monitor, front, and the Virginia
        The Battle of Hampton Roads between the Monitor, front, and the Virginia

        The Virginia and the Monitor fought for three hours. Neither ship scored an important hit. Neither suffered serious damage.

        維吉尼亞號和莫尼特號整整打了三個小時,誰都沒有擊中對方要害。

        Then the cannons of the Virginia fell silent. The Confederate ship had used up its gunpowder. It also had used up much of its fuel. It was lighter now and was floating higher in the water. A well-aimed cannon ball could hit below its iron covering and sink it.

        就在這時候,維吉尼亞號突然沒聲兒了。南軍用光了所有炮彈,燃料也幾乎耗盡,船身開始浮出水面。此時,如果北軍瞄得準的話,就能擊中裝甲以下的船身,擊沉維吉尼亞號。

        The Confederate captain decided to withdraw. The Union captain, too, was ready to break off the battle. He decided not to follow.

        南軍艦長決定撤退,北軍艦長也不想戀戰,沒有緊追不舍。

        Neither ship could claim victory. But the Monitor had kept the Virginia from destroying more of the Union's wooden warships.

        這場戰役,雙方沒輸沒贏,但是莫尼特號有效阻止了維吉尼亞號摧毀北軍的更多木船。

        The Virginia itself was to live just two more months. Union forces seized the Confederate navy base at Norfolk, where the Virginia was kept. And the iron monster was sunk to keep it from falling into Union hands.

        兩個月后,北軍占領了南軍的諾??撕\娀?,南軍為了不讓??吭谀抢锏木S吉尼亞號落入北軍手中,自己炸沉了這艘裝甲怪物。

        VOICE TWO:

        The battle at Hampton Roads between the Virginia and the Monitor was undecisive. It did not have much effect on the final result of America's Civil War. But it was still an important battle. For it marked the beginning of the end of the world's wooden navies.

        漢普頓路一戰雖然不是一場決定性戰役,對南北戰爭的最后結果沒有多少影響,但依然是一場重要戰斗,標志著木船海戰開始成為歷史。

        We will continue our story of the Civil War next week.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley and Christine Johnson. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs can be found along with historical images at www.squishedblueberries.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #101 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(2條):
        作者:Alumni
        10-4-2013 21:37:7
        the navy equipment got development in the civil war. the south developed two new naval technologies - one for submarine and another for underwater explosive divices. so we say the war is a double-eged sword. it brings the disaster to people as well as drive the development of science and technology.
        作者:swh_2010
        2-18-2017 10:49:56
        樓上說的極是
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