<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #100: Lincoln Names a General to Defend Washington

        作者:Frank Beardsley 發布日期:5-22-2013

        Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

        In July of eighteen sixty-one, Union soldiers from the North and Confederate soldiers from the South fought the first major battle in the American Civil War. They clashed at Manassas, or Bull Run, Virginia, less than fifty kilometers from Washington.

        1861年7月,北方聯邦部隊跟南方的邦聯部隊在距離華盛頓不到50公里處的馬納薩斯打響了美國南北戰爭的第一戰,又稱布爾溪戰役。

        The Union soldiers fought fiercely. But two large Confederate forces broke the Union attack.

        北方部隊英勇作戰,但是南方邦聯兩股力量聯手,擊退了北方的進攻。

        This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant tell about some of the other early battles of the Civil War.

        VOICE ONE:

        General George McClellan
        General George McClellan

        Northerners had expected to win the battle of Bull Run. They believed the Confederacy would fall if the Union won a big military victory early in the war. Now, however, there was great fear that southern soldiers would seize Washington. The Union needed to build and train an army quickly.

        北方本以為布爾溪戰役會贏,他們覺得,如果一上來就打個大勝仗的話,南方邦聯就會立即土崩瓦解。布爾溪一役戰敗后,北方開始擔心南方會奪取首都華盛頓,所以需要迅速訓練士兵。

        President Abraham Lincoln named General George McClellan to do this. McClellan was thirty-four years old.

        林肯總統把這一重擔交給了年僅34歲的麥克萊倫將軍。

        The young general had two important tasks. He must defend Washington from attack. And he must build an army to strike at enemy forces in Virginia. McClellan wasted no time. He put thousands of troops into position around the city. And he built forty-eight forts.

        麥克萊倫的任務有兩個,一是保衛華盛頓的安全,二是組建軍隊,對維吉尼亞的敵軍發動攻擊。麥克萊倫立即行動,在華盛頓周圍布署了數千人的兵力,并建造了48個堡壘。

        After this rush of activity, however, little more happened for a long time. McClellan told his wife: "I shall take my own time to make an army that will be sure of success. As soon as I feel my army is well-organized and well-trained and strong enough, I will force the rebels to a battle."

        這些措施全部到位后,很長一段時間里沒有更多的行動。麥克萊倫告訴妻子說,“我要按部就班地培養一支百戰百勝的隊伍,一旦我覺得這支部隊組織嚴密、訓練有素、具備強大的作戰能力了,我就要迫使南方叛軍跟我們一決勝負。”

        McClellan kept making excuses for why he would not move against the enemy. His excuses became a continuing source of trouble for President Lincoln. The public, the press, and politicians all demanded that McClellan do something. They wanted to win the war, and win it right away.

        麥克萊倫為遲遲按兵不動提出各種借口,給林肯帶來了不少麻煩。公眾輿論、媒體、和政客都要求麥克萊倫采取行動,他們希望打贏這場戰爭,而且最好馬上就贏。

        VOICE TWO:

        McClellan commanded the biggest army in the Union, the Army of the Potomac. But it was not the only army. Others were battling Confederate forces in the West.

        麥克萊倫率領的波托馬克軍團是北方聯邦最強大的一支部隊,但并非唯一的部隊。北方的其它部隊在美國西部跟邦聯兵力作戰。

        The Confederates had moved up through Tennessee into the border state of Kentucky. They built forts and other defensive positions across the southern part of the state. They also blocked as many railroads and rivers as they could.

        與此同時,南方邦聯部隊已經北上,從田納西進入南北交界處的肯塔基,他們在肯塔基南部建立了堡壘等防御據點,并盡量切斷鐵路和河流的運輸線。

        General Ulysses Grant
        General Ulysses Grant

        Their job was to keep Union forces from invading the South through Kentucky. One of the Union generals in the area was Ulysses Grant.

        他們的任務是防止北方聯邦部隊穿過肯塔基,入侵南部地區。當地的北方聯邦指揮官之一是尤利塞斯·格蘭特將軍。

        Grant had served in the army for twenty years. He had fought in America's war against Mexico and had won honors for his bravery. When that war ended, he was sent to an army base far from his wife and children. He did not like being without them. And he did not like being an officer in peace time.

        格蘭特曾在陸軍服役20年,參加過美國跟墨西哥的戰爭,而且還因為勇敢善戰而受到表彰。戰爭結束后,格蘭特被調到一個遠離妻子孩子的營地,格蘭特很不滿意遠離家人的生活,也不希望做一個和平時期的軍官。

        Grant began to drink too much alcohol. He began to be a problem. In eighteen fifty-four, he was asked to leave the army. When the Civil War started, Grant organized a group of unpaid soldiers in Illinois. With the help of a member of Congress, he was named a general.

        格蘭特因此開始酗酒,還經常惹麻煩。1854年,他被要求退役。南北戰爭打響后,格蘭特在伊利諾伊組織了一支無償服役的志愿軍,在一個國會議員的幫助下,格蘭特搖身一變,成了將軍。

        All of the other Union Generals knew Ulysses Grant. Few had any faith in his abilities. They were sure he would always fail.

        北方聯邦部隊的其它將領都很了解格蘭特,大家對格蘭特的能力缺乏信心,覺得他肯定會一敗涂地。

        VOICE ONE:

        Grant, however, had faith in himself and his men. He believed he could force Confederate soldiers to withdraw from both Kentucky and Tennessee. Then he would be free to march directly into the Deep South -- Mississippi.

        然而,格蘭特對自己和手下充滿了信心。他相信自己能迫使南方邦聯士兵退出肯塔基和田納西,這樣他就可以長驅直入,南下密西西比了。

        Battle of Fort Donelson
        Battle of Fort Donelson

        Two Confederate forts stood in Grant's way. They were in Tennessee, close to the Kentucky border.

        不過,田納西境內靠近肯塔基邊界的兩座南方邦聯的堡壘,擋住了格蘭特的去路。

        United States Navy gunboats captured the first, Fort Henry, on the Tennessee River. That fort was easy to attack and not well-defended. The fighting was over by the time Grant and his men got there.

        北方聯邦海軍炮艦攻占了其中之一--田納西河沿岸的亨利軍事城堡,這個城堡防守松懈,格蘭特率領部下趕到的時候,戰斗已經結束了。

        The second, Fort Donelson, was nearby on the Cumberland River. It was stronger and defended by twenty thousand soldiers. Grant surrounded the fort and let the navy gunboats shell it. The fighting there lasted several days.

        另外一個城堡是不遠處的坎伯蘭河沿岸的道爾遜軍事城堡。這個城堡比較堅固,有兩萬人把守。格蘭特包圍城堡后,讓海軍炮艦轟炸,戰斗足足持續了好幾天。

        VOICE TWO:

        At one point, the Confederates tried to break out of the fort and escape. They opened a hole in the Union line and began to retreat. Suddenly, however, their commanding officer decided it would be wrong to retreat. He ordered them back to the fort.

        南方邦聯士兵一度試圖突圍,他們沖破北方聯邦部隊的封鎖圈后開始撤退,誰知指揮官突然變卦,覺得不能這樣做,下令士兵撤回城堡。

        After that, there was no choice. The Confederates would have to surrender.

        這樣一來,南方邦聯部隊除了投降,別無選擇。

        The commanding officer sent a message to General Grant. "What were the terms of surrender?" Grant's answer was simple. "No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender."

        指揮官傳信給格蘭特,問他投降有什么條件?格蘭特回答很簡單,“無條件立即投降就是唯一的條件。”

        The Confederates gave up Fort Donelson. Grant took fourteen thousand prisoners.

        格蘭特將軍不僅占領了道爾遜軍事城堡,還抓住了1萬4千名俘虜。

        It was the greatest Union victory since the start of the war. Ulysses Grant was a hero. Newspapers called him "Unconditional Surrender" Grant.

        這是南北戰爭開始以來,北方聯邦取得的最大一次勝利。格蘭特將軍成了英雄,報紙稱他是“無條件投降格蘭特”。

        VOICE ONE:

        After the Union victory at Fort Donelson, Confederate forces withdrew from Tennessee. They moved farther south and began to re-group at Corinth, Mississippi.

        道爾遜城堡失守后,南方邦聯部隊退出田納西,向南撤退,在密西西比的科林斯重新集結。

        Confederate Generals hoped to build one big army to stop Ulysses Grant. They would have to move fast. Grant was marching toward Corinth with forty thousand men. Another thirty-five thousand, under the command of Don Buell, were to meet him on the way.

        南方將領希望建立一支雄厚大軍,攔住格蘭特的進攻。不過,他們的動作一定要快,因為格蘭特已經率領4萬大軍直奔科林斯而來,另外,唐·布爾率領3萬5千人還要在沿途跟格蘭特會師。

        Grant arrived in the area first. He waited for Buell thirty kilometers from Corinth, near a small country meeting hall called Shiloh Church.

        格蘭特率先抵達會師地點,在距離科林斯30公里處一個叫夏洛教堂的議事大廳等候布爾。

        Confederate General Albert Sydney Johnston was waiting, too. He had more than forty thousand men, about the same as Grant. And he was expecting another twenty thousand. But when he learned that Grant was nearby, he decided not to wait. He would attack immediately.

        與此同時,南方邦聯部隊指揮官艾伯特·約翰遜也在等待。約翰遜手下有4萬多人,跟格蘭特的兵力差不多,他還有另外2萬援兵。約翰遜得知格蘭特就在附近后,決定不再等待,立即進攻。

        VOICE TWO:

        Johnston did not know it, but his attack came as a surprise to the Union army. Union officers had refused to believe reports that Johnston was on the move. They said his army was not strong enough to attack.

        約翰遜的行動打了北方聯邦部隊一個措手不及。北方部隊指揮官覺得約翰遜的兵力不夠強大,不相信約翰遜已經出動。

        Union troops did not prepare defensive positions. They had no protection when the battle began.

        北方部隊沒有建立任何防守工事,結果戰斗打響時,他們完全沒有防備和保護。

        Battle of Shiloh
        Battle of Shiloh

        The fighting at Shiloh was the bitterest of the war. It was not one battle, but many. Groups of men fought each other all across the wide battlefield. From a distance, they shot at each other. Close up, they cut each other with knives. The earth became red with blood. The dead and wounded soon lay everywhere.

        夏洛一戰是南北戰爭最血腥的一場戰役,戰斗不只一場,而是很多場。戰線拉得很長,交戰雙方要么遠距離對射,要么近距離肉搏,很快就死傷遍地,鮮血染紅了整個戰場。

        At first, the Confederates pushed Grant's army back. They had only to break through one more line and victory would be theirs. But in the thick of the struggle, General Johnston was shot in the leg. The bullet cut through an artery. Johnston bled to death before help arrived. Any hope for a southern victory at Shiloh died with him.

        起初,南方邦聯士兵迫使格蘭特的部隊后撤,只要再沖破一道防線,勝利就屬于他們了。但是戰斗過程中,約翰遜將軍腿部受傷,子彈穿透動脈,醫護人員趕到前,就因流血過多不幸身亡了。南方邦聯部隊夏洛一戰勝利的希望因此煙消云散。

        By the time the fighting began again the next day, General Buell had arrived to help Grant. The Confederate army retreated. The Union army let it go.

        第二天戰斗重新打響前,布爾將軍援兵已到,南方邦聯部隊后撤,北方聯邦部隊沒有再乘勝追擊。

        VOICE ONE:

        Shiloh. The word itself came to mean death and destruction. The battle of Shiloh had brought home to the American people -- both of the North and South -- the horror of war. It was the first time so many men -- one hundred thousand -- had fought against each other in the western world. It was the American people's first real taste of the bloodiness of modern warfare.

        夏洛戰役讓美國南北方的人都意識到了戰爭的恐怖。夏洛一詞就等同于死亡和毀滅。這是西方世界第一次有多達10萬人參加的戰斗,也讓美國人第一次真正嘗到了現代戰爭的血腥。

        As one soldier who fought there said: "It was too shocking, too horrible. I hope to God that I may never see such things again."

        參加過夏洛戰役的一個士兵說,“太驚人、太可怕了。我希望上帝不要再讓我看到這樣的事情。”

        The North won the battle of Shiloh. But it paid a very high price for victory. More than thirteen thousand union soldiers were killed, wounded, or missing. On the Confederate side, more than ten thousand soldiers were killed or wounded.

        北方聯邦部隊贏得了夏洛戰役,但是也為勝利付出了慘重的代價,多達1萬3千名聯邦士兵傷亡或是下落不明,南方邦聯部隊也有1萬多人傷亡。

        The North celebrated the news of its victory. But joy quickly turned to anger when the public learned of the heavy losses. People blamed General Grant. They demanded that President Lincoln dismiss him.

        勝利的消息傳來,北方一片歡騰,但是當民眾得知傷亡如此慘重后,喜悅立即變為了憤怒。大家覺得這都是格蘭特的錯,要林肯解除他的職務。

        Lincoln thought of the two men who were now his top military commanders: McClellan and Grant. They were so different. McClellan organized an army, and then did nothing. Grant organized an army, and moved.

        林肯對自己的兩員大將麥克萊倫和格蘭特左右權衡。這兩個人截然不同。麥克萊倫組織了軍隊,但是按兵不動。格蘭特也組織了軍隊,并立即投入戰斗。

        Lincoln said of Grant: "I cannot do without this man. He fights."

        林肯提到格蘭特時說,“我不能沒有這個人。他是斗士。”

        We will continue our story of the Civil War next week.

        (MUSIC)

        ANNOUNCER:

        Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Galllant. Our series can be found online with transcripts, podcasts and historical images at www.squishedblueberries.com. You can also follow our programs at twitter.com/voalearnenglish. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

        ___

        This is program #100 of THE MAKING OF A NATION

        網友的學習評論(3條):
        作者:Alumni
        10-3-2013 21:35:9
        General Ulysess Grant, volunteered at first, led forty thousand men fought against the southern force at Tennesee. won. War is not in practice to capture the all area of the enemy but size the main fort which menas the whole warfare. then it encourages the spirits of the fighters and to all the people of the nation from whom they agian get the great encourages and aids till winning the complete victory.
        作者:朱宏文
        8-20-2016 15:18:5
        General Ulysess Grant, volunteered at first, led forty thousand men fought against the southern force at Tennesee. won. War is not in practice to capture the all area of the enemy but size the main fort which menas the whole warfare. then it encourages the spirits of the fighters and to all the people of the nation from whom they agian get the great encourages and aids till winning the complete victory.
        作者:swh_2010
        2-18-2017 10:23:24
        最喜歡看這個歷史了,學英文學歷史,覺得當時的林肯的確不容易哈
        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频