<em id="0i93o"></em>
<sub id="0i93o"></sub>
<meter id="0i93o"></meter>
      1. <form id="0i93o"></form>

        官方APP下載:英語學習播客(支持蘋果手機、安卓手機)
        創辦于2003年
        UNSV記不???那就記中文諧音“憂安思?!卑?!
          Slow and Steady Wins the Race!
        UNSV英語學習頻道 - Slow and steady wins the race!
        公眾微信服務號(英語全能特訓)
        英語全能特訓(微信公眾服務號)
        UNSV英語學習頻道淘寶網店
        客服短信:18913948480
        客服郵箱:web@unsv.com
        初級VIP會員
        全站英語學習資料下載。
        ¥98元/12個月

        #10: Britain Says No to 'No Taxation Without Representation'

        作者:Nancy Steinbach 發布日期:1-28-2013

        VOICE ONE:

        This is Sarah Long.

        VOICE TWO:

        And this is Rich Kleinfeldt with the MAKING OF A NATION, A VOA Special English program about the history of the United States.

        (MUSIC)

        Today, we tell about relations between the American colonies and Britain after the French and Indian War about two hundred fifty years ago.

        VOICE ONE:

        The French and Indian War was one part of a world conflict between Britain and France. It was fought to decide which of the two powerful nations would rule North America.

        為了爭奪對美洲大陸的控制權,英國和法國展開戰爭。

        Detail from ''The Death of General Wolfe,'' a 1770 painting by Benjamin West. James Wolfe was a British general killed during the 1759 battle in which his troops won a victory over the French at Quebec, Canada.
        Detail from ''The Death of General Wolfe,'' a 1770 painting by Benjamin West. James Wolfe was a British general killed during the 1759 battle in which his troops won a victory over the French at Quebec, Canada.

        The British defeated the French in North America in seventeen sixty-three. As a result, it took control of lands that had been claimed by France. Britain now was responsible for almost two million people in the thirteen American colonies and sixty thousand French-speaking people in Canada. In addition to political and economic responsibilities, Britain had to protect all these colonists from different groups of Indians.

        英國于1763年擊敗法國,控制了法國占領的土地。這樣一來,英國的勢力就擴大到了美國13個殖民地的將近200萬人以及加拿大講法語的大約6000人。除了政治和經濟責任外,英國還要保護殖民地的居民不受印第安部落的侵害。

        This would cost a lot of money. Britain already had spent a lot of money sending troops and material to the colonies to fight the French and Indian War. It believed the American colonists should now help pay for that war.

        這就需要很多錢。為了打贏法英戰爭,英國消耗了大量資金,他們因此覺得,美國殖民地應該分擔戰爭留下的債務。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        The colonists in America in seventeen sixty-three were very different from those who had settled there more than one hundred years before. They had different ideas. They had come to consider their colonial legislatures as smaller -- but similar -- to the Parliament in Britain. These little parliaments had helped them rule themselves for more than one hundred years. The colonists began to feel that their legislatures should also have the powers that the British Parliament had.

        VOICE ONE:

        1763年北美殖民地的居民與他們100多年前剛剛踏上這片土地的先行者已經迥然不同了。他們有自己的想法。他們逐漸開始覺得,殖民地的議會雖然規模不大,但和英國議會十分相似,而且已經幫助他們自行管理了100多年。因此,他們的議會也應該跟英國議會享有同等的權力。

        The situation had changed in England too. In seventeen-oh-seven, the nation became officially known as Great Britain. Its king no longer controlled Parliament as he had in the early sixteen hundreds. Then, the king decided all major questions, especially those concerning the colonies.

        與此同時,英國也在發生變化。1707年,英格蘭正式成為大不列顛,也就是英國,權力從國王轉移到議會。過去,議會是在國王的控制之下,一切重大決定都是國王說了算,特別是殖民地的相關事務。

        But power had moved from the king to the Parliament. It was the legislature that decided major questions by the time of the French and Indian War, especially the power to tax. The parliaments in the colonies began to believe that they should have this power of taxation, too.

        到法英戰爭的時候,議會已經接管了所有重大問題的決定權,特別是稅收。北美殖民地的議會因此覺得,他們也應該享有收稅的權力。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        The first English settlers in America considered themselves citizens of England. They had crossed a dangerous ocean to create a little England in a new place, to trade with the mother country and to spread their religion. By seventeen sixty-three, however, the colonists thought of themselves as Americans.

        踏上北美大陸的第一批英國定居者認為自己是英格蘭的臣民。他們遠渡重洋,在一片新大陸上建立了一個小英格蘭,跟祖國進行商品交易,同時傳播自己的宗教。然而,到了1763年的時候,北美殖民地的人們覺得自己是美洲居民。

        Many of their families had been in North America for fifty to one hundred years. They had cleared the land, built homes, fought Indians and made lives for themselves far away from Britain. They had different everyday concerns than the people in Britain. Their way of life was different, too. They did not want anyone else to tell them how to govern themselves.

        很多家庭已經在北美大陸上生活了50年到100年。他們開荒種地、建造房屋,跟印第安人作戰,在遠離英國的地方建立了自己的生活。他們的生活方式也發生了變化,不需要別人告訴他們如何管理自己。

        VOICE ONE:

        The British, however, still believed that the purpose of a colony was to serve the mother country. The government treated colonists differently from citizens at home. It demanded special taxes from them. It also ordered them to feed British troops and let them live in their houses. Britain claimed that the soldiers were in the colonies to protect the people. The people asked, "From whom?"

        然而,英國卻仍然認為,殖民地的存在就是為祖國效力。英國政府區別對待本土公民和殖民地居民,要求殖民地繳納額外的稅款,還命令他們為英國軍隊提供食宿,理由是,英國軍隊到殖民地去是為了保護他們。但是殖民地的人卻問:“保護我們?危險在哪里呢?”

        As long as the French were nearby in Canada, the colonists needed the protection of the British army and navy. After the French were gone -- following their defeat in the French and Indian War -- the colonists felt they no longer needed British military protection.

        法國軍隊在加拿大的時候,殖民地需要英國軍隊的保護,但是法英戰爭結束后,法國的威脅已經不復存在,殖民地的人覺得不再需要英國軍隊了。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        The British government demanded that the colonists pay higher and higher taxes. One reason was that the British government wanted to show the colonists that it was in control. Another reason was that Britain was having money problems. Foreign wars had left it with big debts. The British thought the colonists should help pay some of these debts, especially those resulting from the French and Indian War.

        英國政府不斷提高殖民地的稅收,原因之一是要讓殖民地知道,他們依舊在英國的統治之下。另外一個原因是,英國面臨著嚴峻的財政困難。對外戰爭讓英國債臺高筑,英國認為殖民地應該幫著還錢,特別是戰爭遺留的債務。

        The American colonists might have agreed, but they wanted to have a say in the decision. They wanted the right to vote about their own taxes, like the people living in Britain. But no colonists were permitted to serve in the British Parliament. So they protested that they were being taxed without being represented.

        美洲殖民地的居民本來可能并不反對,但是他們希望自己能有發言權。他們希望能象英國本土的居民一樣,在稅收問題上有投票權。但是按照當時的規定,殖民地的人不能擔任英國議會成員。殖民地對這種“納稅無代表”的狀況表示抗議。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        In seventeen sixty-four, the British Parliament approved the Sugar Act. This legislation placed taxes on sugar, coffee, wines and other products imported to America in large amounts. It increased by two times the taxes on European products sent to the colonies through Britain. The British government also approved new measures aimed at enforcing all trade laws. And it decided to restrict the printing of paper money in the colonies.

        1764年,英國議會通過了《食糖條例》,對進口到美洲的食糖、咖啡、葡萄酒等產品征稅,并將經由英國運往殖民地的其他歐洲產品的稅率提高了兩倍。英國政府還通過了新的措施,保證所有貿易法令的執行,同時決定限制殖民地印刷紙幣。

        The American colonists opposed all these new laws. Yet they could not agree about how to resist. Colonial assemblies approved protests against the laws, but the protest actions were all different and had no real effect. Business groups tried to organize boycotts of goods. But these were not very successful...until the British government approved another tax in seventeen sixty-five: a tax on stamps.

        這些新法受到美洲殖民者的反對,但是他們又無法在如何抵制的問題上取得一致。各殖民地的議會紛紛決定抗議新法,但是抗議行動各不相同,因此沒有取得實質效果。商業團體也企圖抵制有關商品,但是并不成功,這種局面一直繼續到1765年英國政府通過《印花稅條例》。

        VOICE TWO:

        Detail from a proof sheet of one-penny stamps. Under the Stamp Act, these were to be used on newspapers, pamphlets and all other papers larger than half a page.
        Detail from a proof sheet of one-penny stamps. Under the Stamp Act, these were to be used on newspapers, pamphlets and all other papers larger than half a page.

        The Stamp Act probably angered more American colonists than any earlier tax. It said the colonists had to buy a British stamp for every piece of printed paper they used. That meant they would be taxed for every piece of a newspaper, every document, even every playing card.

        《印花稅條例》引起的美洲殖民地人民的憤怒是史無前例的。根據《印花稅條例》,殖民地使用的任何紙張,都要購買英國的印花稅券,也就是說,每一張報紙、每一份文件,甚至是撲克牌,都要納稅。

        The colonists refused to pay. Colonial assemblies approved resolutions suggesting that the British Parliament had no right to tax the colonies at all. Some colonists were so angry that they attacked British stamp agents.

        殖民地的人拒絕接受,殖民地的議會通過決議,認為英國議會無權向殖民地征稅。有些憤怒的殖民者甚至對征收印花稅的官員發動襲擊。

        History experts say the main reason the colonists were angry was because Britain had rejected the idea of "no taxation without representation." Almost no colonist wanted to be independent of Britain at that time. Yet all of them valued their local self-rule and their rights as British citizens. They considered the Stamp Act to be the worst in a series of violations of these rights.

        歷史學家說,殖民地居民感到憤怒的主要原因是英國拒絕接受“無代表就不納稅”的主張。當時,殖民地其實并沒有人希望從英國獨立出去,但是他們都很珍視殖民地自我管理的模式,以及他們作為英國公民的權利。在他們看來,《印花稅條例》是長期以來對這種權利最嚴重的侵犯。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        The American colonists refused to obey the Stamp Act. They also refused to buy British goods. Almost one thousand storeowners signed non-importation agreements. This cost British businessmen so much money that they demanded that the government end the Stamp Act. Parliament finally cancelled the law in seventeen sixty-six. The colonists immediately ended their ban against British goods.

        美洲殖民者不僅拒絕接受《印花稅條例》,也對英國產品實行抵制。將近1000名商店老板聯名簽署了拒絕進口的協議,給英國本土的商人造成了巨大的經濟損失,在他們的強烈要求下,英國議會于1766年取消了《印花稅條例》,殖民地也立即結束了他們對英國產品的抵制。

        VOICE TWO:

        The same day that Parliament cancelled the Stamp Act, however, it approved the Declaratory Act. This was a statement saying the colonies existed to serve Britain, and that Britain could approve any law it wanted. Most American colonists considered this statement to be illegal.

        然而,英國議會取消《印花稅條例》的同一天又通過了一項叫做《公告》的宣言,聲稱殖民地的存在是為了效忠英國,英國政府有權通過任何法律。美洲殖民地大都不承認這份《公告》的合法性。

        History experts say this shows how separated the colonies had become from Britain. Colonial assemblies were able to approve their own laws, but only with the permission of the British Parliament. The colonists, however, considered the work of their assemblies as their own form of self-rule.

        歷史學家說,這種情況顯示了殖民地跟英國之間的巨大差距。英國認為殖民地議會可以通過自己的法律,但是必須得到英國議會的批準。然而,殖民地的人卻認為,通過殖民地議會的工作,他們實現了自我管理。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE ONE:

        In this cartoon, British Treasury Secretary George Grenville is carrying a child's coffin marked 'Miss Ame-Stamp born 1765 died 1766'
        In this cartoon, British Treasury Secretary George Grenville is carrying a child's coffin marked 'Miss Ame-Stamp born 1765 died 1766'

        Britain ended the Stamp Act but did not stop demanding taxes. In seventeen sixty-seven, Parliament approved a series of new taxes called the Townshend Acts. These were named after the government official who proposed them. The Townshend Acts placed taxes on glass, tea, lead, paints and paper imported into the colonies.

        英國雖然取消了《印花稅條例》,但是并沒有停止征稅。1767年,英國議會通過了一系列新稅法,統稱《湯森條例》?!稖瓧l例》對殖民地進口的玻璃、茶葉、鉛、油漆和紙張征稅。美洲殖民者再次通過抵制英國產品的做法對抗《湯森條例》。他們同時努力提高殖民地本身的制造能力。

        The American colonists rejected the Townshend Acts and started a new boycott of British goods. They also made efforts to increase manufacturing in the colonies. By the end of seventeen sixty-nine, they had reduced by half the amount of goods imported from Britain. The colonies also began to communicate with each other about their problems.

        到1769年的時候,他們已經將從英國進口的物資減少了一半。在這段時間里,北美大陸各殖民地之間的聯系也開始逐漸增加。

        VOICE TWO:

        In seventeen sixty-eight, the Massachusetts General Court sent a letter to the legislatures of the other colonies. It said the Townshend Acts violated the colonists' natural and constitutional rights. When news of the letter reached London, British officials ordered the colonial governor of Massachusetts to dismiss the legislature. Then they moved four thousand British troops into Boston, the biggest city in Massachusetts -- and the biggest city in the American colonies.

        1768年,麻薩諸塞法院致函其他殖民地的立法機構。信中說,《湯森條例》侵犯了殖民地的自然和憲法賦予的權利。消息傳到倫敦后,英國官員下令麻薩諸塞總督解散議會,并派遣4000名英國軍隊進駐麻薩諸塞最大的城市波士頓。

        VOICE ONE:

        The people of Boston hated the British soldiers. The soldiers were controlling their streets and living in their houses. This tension led to violence. That will be our story next week.

        英國士兵控制了波士頓的街道,住在老百姓家中,引起了波士頓人的憎惡。雙方之間的緊張情緒最終演變成了暴力沖突。

        (MUSIC)

        VOICE TWO:

        Today's MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach. This is Rich Kleinfeldt..

        VOICE ONE:

        And this is Sarah Long. Join us again next week for another Special English program about the history of the United States.

        網友的學習評論(4條):
        作者:華晨
        2-7-2013 11:27:55
        "The first English settlers considered themselves citizens of Britain. They had crossed a dangerous ocean to create a little England in a new place ,to trade with mother country and spread thier religion.By 1763 clononist thought of themselves as Americans. Many of theri families had been in America for 50 to 100 years.
        作者:華晨
        2-7-2013 11:28:8
        The had cleared the land ,built homes , fight for indinas and made lives for themselves far away from Britain。The way of life was different too. They did want anyone else told them how to govern themselves.
        作者:櫻桃樹
        3-18-2013 14:22:45
        The colonists refused to pay. Colonial assemblies approved resolutions suggesting that the British Parliament had no right to tax the colonies at all. Some colonists were so angry that they attacked British stamp agents.
        作者:hliu
        7-9-2015 9:22:19
        The Same people live in two extreme different places and develop different cultures and value different things. Setters in the New World risk their lives to pursue their religion freedom or escape from penalties because of their liability to pay for their debts or find a live for the poverty. They think more freely without existing cultural bounds and behave wildly. They have the rights to get what they deserves.
        版權所有©2003-2019 南京通享科技有限公司,保留所有權利。未經書面許可,嚴禁轉載本站內容,違者追究法律責任。 互聯網經營ICP證:蘇B2-20120186
        網站備案:蘇公網安備 32010202011039號蘇ICP備05000269號-1中國工業和信息化部網站備案查詢
        廣播臺
        又粗又大又黄又爽的免费视频